Example of linear, geometrical non-linear, local non-linear and material non-linear behaviour
A steel pipeline component with 90 degree bend R = 3*D with legs and Do = 100 mm and wall thickness t = 1 mm is loaded by horizontal prescribed displacements as shown in the picture below.
The differences in calculated bending moments at the middle of the bend are shown below for the various analysis options on the model.
The differences in calculated bending moment distributions over the pipeline component are shown below for the various analysis options on the model.
The differences in calculated max. stress distributions at the middle of the bend are shown below for the various analysis options on the model. The yield stress taken into account is 300 N/mm2 and the applied sig-eps diagram applied is the DSH option. (see table ISTROP)
The maximum equivalent stress distribution over the circumference is shown for the various analysis options in the diagram below.
For the material non-linearity the stress distribution is highly influenced by the local yielding of the pipe material as shown already above in the comparison of analysis options. Below the stress components together forming the equivalent stress are shown.
In case of material non-linearity the strains deviate from the stresses in case of local yielding and the results are shown below.
ExamplesAnalysisMethods, last changed: 11/4/2020